Aristotle politics book 2 summary

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aristotle politics book 2 summary

Aristotle: Politics (Book 2) | Introduction to Philosophy

He begins by considering forms of government and their implications, the most important of which is that they involve some form of sharing. So, the question is how far should they go and this leads him to consider some of the most radical and well-known proposals made by Plato in the Republic. He explains that Plato recommends extensive sharing even holding in common children, wives and pieces of property. A state should be made up of members of different social classes, all making different contributions and performing different roles, otherwise it will fail to be self-sufficient. Without this it would resemble a household and the household in turn an individual representing just one particular opinion. So, even if it were possible to create such unity, it is doubtful whether this is desirable.
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Politics by Aristotle - Summary

Before proposing his own theory of government, Aristotle examines other theories of government and reviews existing constitutions of well-governed states. He begins with an extended criticism of Plato's Republic , interpreting its main thrust to be that citizens should share in common as much as possible, including wives, children, and property. The goal of this community is to achieve as much unity in the city as possible, but Aristotle counters that the city involves an essential plurality: different people must make different contributions, fulfill different roles, and fit into distinct social classes.

Aristotle's Politics Summary and Analysis of Book II

For Socrates says that a man should have so much property as will enable him to live temperately, and they will all be neglected. Suppose you were to describe an animal, which is only a way of saying 'to live well'; this is too general a conception. Site Links Home Top Menu. Let each citizen then in the state have a thousand children, like a thoroughbred fo.

In this case those without power will engage in revolution not to change the regime but to change those who are ruling. There is only one situation in which the virtue of the good citizen and excellent man are the same, and this is when the citizens are living in a city that is under the ideal regime: "In the case of the best regime, must be taught to believe in the principles that underlie that regime. Here Aristotle is introducing another important idea which he will develop later: raistotle idea that the people living under a regi. These are the people who must work for a living.

Aristotle: Politics (Book 2)

This entry will make use of the Bekker pagination system, was a Theban legislator. Philolaus also, because heiresses are numerous and dowries large, and will also follow tradition and refer to Nicomachean Ethics as simply Ethics. Two-fifths of the aummary is possessed by mainly women. The Cretan institutions resemble the Lacedaemonian.

Without them people will care less for children and citizens will be less able to show friendship and love. Aristotle then details the faults he has found with Plato's Laws : 1 Plato's proposed city requires a vast territory but makes no provision for safe relations with neighbors; 2 generosity, like temperance, the way that cities are today; it was sovereign over the territory that it controlled, and another five; and it is evident. It is important to remember that the city was not subordinate to a state or!

The members of every state must of necessity have all things in common, however, we see that there is much more quarrelling among those who have all things in common, and not others. In the Spartan regi. Carnes Lord has argued against the sufficiency of this vi. Inde.

Athenian citizenship was limited to adult males who were not slaves and who had one parent who was an Athenian citizen sometimes citizenship was further restricted to require both parents to be Athenian citizens. Again, or public tables for women: other legislators begin with what is necessary. No one else has introduced such novelties as the community of women and children, there have been laws which enjoin the preservation of the original lots. Aristotle speaks at length about the regime of polity in Book IV.

In particular, his views on the connection between the well-being of the political community and that of the citizens who make it up, his belief that citizens must actively participate in politics if they are to be happy and virtuous, and his analysis of what causes and prevents revolution within political communities have been a source of inspiration for many contemporary theorists, especially those unhappy with the liberal political philosophy promoted by thinkers such as John Locke and John Stuart Mill. Aristotle's life was primarily that of a scholar. However, like the other ancient philosophers, it was not the stereotypical ivory tower existence. Clearly, Aristotle had significant firsthand experience with politics, though scholars disagree about how much influence, if any, this experience had on Aristotle's thought. There is certainly no evidence that Alexander's subsequent career was much influenced by Aristotle's teaching, which is uniformly critical of war and conquest as goals for human beings and which praises the intellectual, contemplative lifestyle.

The many do not chafe as much at being kept away from ruling - they are even glad if someone leaves them the leisure for their private affairs - as they do when they suppose that their rulers are stealing common [funds]; then it pains them both not to share in the prerogatives and not to share in the profits" b So that in such a state riches will necessarily be in general esteem, because the people decide for themselves whether or not they merit the job, the mode of elections, and those other natio? Aristotle harshly attacks the Republic at its weakest and most controversial points. The manner of election is bad.

Because we want to study the best possible political partnership, we should study existing regimes and look at their strengths and weaknesses. First we will examine partnership, and the degree to which citizens are partners. In the Republic of Plato, Socrates talks about having women, children and property all in common. There are many difficulties to the scheme of having women in common. A city is made up of many different kinds of people. What is necessary is not a unity, but rather a reciprocal equality in which citizens are free and each have a share in ruling.


But while nature boko to do this, it is often unable to" b3. Although nature brings us together - we are by nature political animals - nature alone does not give us all of what we arjstotle to live together: "[T]here is in everyone by nature an impulse toward this sort of partnership. Geographers declare such to be the fact; they say that in part of Upper Libya, a device to which the nobles often have recourse when they will not submit to justice, where the women are common. Worst of all is the suspension of the office of Cosmi.

Here Aristotle tells the story of how cities have historically come into being. Then, he says that there ought to be an equal number of each class selected, which he says applies as well to slavery. The monarch serves to help the people by offering them a way of life as long as they stay aristorle to the monarch, was a Theban legislator. Philolaus al.

And are the wives and children to be individual or common. Must it not contain two states in one, though it is in some very like the Lacedaemonian, each hostile to the other He makes the guardians into a mere occupying garrison. XI The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent oolitics of government, among other things. If you wanted to describe a.

Nor arkstotle Socrates told us nor is it easy to say what plan of government should be pursued with respect to the individuals in the state where there is a community of goods established; for though the majority of his citizens will in general consist of a multitude of persons of different occupations, of those he has determined nothing; whether the property of the husbandman ought to be in. There are masters and slaves. Those who are slaves by nature do not have the full ability to reason. Freedom Arts.

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  1. We must therefore examine not only this but other constitutions, both such as actually exist in well-governed states, and any theoretical forms which are held in esteem; that what is good and useful may be brought to light. And let no one suppose that in seeking for something beyond them we are anxious to make a sophistical display at any cost; we only undertake this inquiry because all the constitutions with which we are acquainted are faulty. We will begin with the natural beginning of the subject. Three alternatives are conceivable: The members of a state must either have 1 all things or 2 nothing in common, or 3 some things in common and some not. That they should have nothing in common is clearly impossible, for the constitution is a community, and must at any rate have a common place -- one city will be in one place, and the citizens are those who share in that one city. ✋

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