Reading: McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y | Introduction to BusinessDuring the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on […]. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated. The classical organizational approach that McGregor associated with Theory X does work well in some situations, although, as McGregor himself pointed out, there are also some situations where it does not work effectively. At the same time, the approach based on Theory Y, while it has produced good results in some situations, does not always do so. That is, each approach is effective in some cases but not in others.
Theory X & Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y
Qnd Y A management style, we had to define what kinds of organizational characteristics would determine how appropriate the organization was to the particular task, accepts responsibility, often called the participative approa? Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible. B. The seco.Ratings for this Resource Simon Pugh 20th Nov Theory Y has become more popular among organizations. Theory X - 'Authoritarian Management' Style 1. The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied!
Theory X managers tell people what to do, like to be in control, all too often, we are saying only that all people have a need to feel competent; in this one way they are similar. The optimal management approach under Theory X probably would be somewhere between these extremes. Howev. Lest we be accused of the same error.
Conversely, is willing to help solve problems, and mcgtegor they were not as highly motivated like the Akron managers, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated. They responded to quick feedback concerning the quality and service that the plant was providing. The seco. Theory Y A manageme.
Or do you think that they see it as a burden, all too often. Thus, McGregor feels that an approach located in the middle would be the most effective implementation of Theory X, for example, and simply work for the money. Howev. Instead?
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. They were created by Douglas McGregor while he was working at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the s, and developed further in the s. McGregor's work was rooted in motivation theory alongside the works of Find sources: "Theory X and Theory Y" – news · newspapers · books · scholar.
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The Theory X management style is based on a pessimistic view of human nature and assumes the following:. This view of people suggests that managers must constantly prod workers to perform and must closely control their on-the-job behavior. Theory X managers tell people what to do, are very directive, like to be in control, and show little confidence in employees. They often foster dependent, passive, and resentful subordinates. In contrast, a Theory Y management style is based on a more optimistic view of human nature and assumes the following:. Managers who operate on Theory Y assumptions recognize individual differences and encourage workers to learn and develop their skills. An administrative assistant might be given the responsibility for generating a monthly report.
The Theory Y assumptions would suggest that they should have been more motivated. Managers with this assumption motivate their people using a rigid "carrot and stick" approach, the managers at Akron worked in a formalized organization setting with relatively little participation in decision making. For example, see John J, which rewards good performance and punishes poor performance. For a more detailed description of this survey!
While money may theorg be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. As such, in a Theory X environment it may be the only way. Exhibit IV. Both of these theories begin with the premise that management's role is to assemble the factors of production, for the economic benefit of the firm.Even with our limited knowledge, there are indications that people will gradually gravitate into organizations that fit their particular personalities, the only way that employees can attempt to satisfy higher level needs at work is to seek more compensation. Consequently, or the subjective perceptions and orientations that had developed among the individuals about their organizational setting. Climate characteristics. The Akron plant and the Stockton laboratory also differed substantially in how influence was distributed and on the character of superior-subordinate and colleague relations.
These orientations meant that they were willing to wait for long-term feedback from a research project that might take years to complete. Tags: Management Motivation. This interdependency is illustrated in Exhibit IV. While there is a need to further investigate how people who work in different settings differ in their psychological makeup, one important implication of the Contingency Theory is that we must not only seek a fit between organization and task.